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1把以下合適公式化簡為合取范式的子句集: (1? (?x(?y(?z{P(x ? (?x[Q(x, y ? R(z]}

(2( ?x( ?y{{P(x ∧ [Q(x ∨ R(y]} ? (?y[P(f(y ? Q(g(x]}

(3 (?x( ?y{P(x ∧ [Q(x∨ R(y]}? (?y{[P(f(y? Q(g(y]? (?xR(x} (1 ??(?x( ?y( ?z{P(x ? (?x[Q(x,y ? R(z]}

??(?x( ?y( ?z{ ?P(x ∨ ( ?x[?Q(x,y ∨ R(z]} ? (?x( ?y( ?z{ P(x ∧ (? x[Q(x,y ∧?R(z]} ? P(A ∧ [Q(f(y,z, y ∧?R(z] ? {P(A, Q(f(y,z,y, ∧?R(w}

(2? (?x(?y{{P(x ∧ [Q(x ∨ R(y]} ? (?y[P(f(y ? Q(g(x]} ? (?x(?y{?{P(x ∧ [Q(x ∨ R(y]} ∨(?y[?P(f(y ∨ Q(g(x]} ? (?x(?y{?P(x ∨ [?Q(x ∧?R(y] ∨ (?w[?P(f(w ∨ Q(g(x]}

? (?x{?P(x ∨ [?Q(x ∧?R(h(x] ∨ (?w[?P(f(w ∨ Q(g(x]}

? [?P(x ∨?Q(x ∨?P(f(w ∨ Q(g(x] ∧ [?P(x ∨?R(h(x ∨?P(f(w ∨ Q(g(x] ? {?P(x1 ∨?Q(x1 ∨?P(f(w1 ∨ Q(g(x1,

?P(x2 ∨?R(h(w2 ∨?P(f(w2 ∨ Q(g(x2} (3 ? (?x(?y{P(x ∧ [Q(x ∨ R(y]} ?

(?y{[P(f(y ? Q(g(y]?(?xR(x} ??(?x(?y{P(x ∧ [Q(x ∨ R(y]} ∨

( ?y{?[?P(f(y ∨ Q(g(y] ∨ (?xR(x} ? (?x(?y{ ?P(x ∨ [?Q(x ∧?R(y]} ∨ (?w{?[?P(f(w ∨ Q(g(w] ∨ (?vR(v} ? {?P(A ∨[?Q(A ∧?R(y]} ∨ {[P(f(w ∧?Q(g(w] ∨ R(v}

??P(A ∨ {[?Q(A ∨ P(f(w] ∧ [?Q(A ∨?Q(g(w] ∧

[?R(y ∨ P(f(w] ∧ [?R(y ∨?Q(g(w]} ∨ R(v ? {?P(A ∨?Q(A ∨ P(f(w1 ∨ R(v1,

?P(A ∨?Q(A ∨ Q(g(w2 ∨ R(v2, ?P(A ∨?R(y3 ∨ P(f(w3 ∨ R(v3, ?P(A ∨?R(y4 ∨ Q(g(w4 ∨ R v4} 2假設已知下列事實:

1小李(Li喜歡容易的(Easy課程(Course。 2小李不喜歡難的(Difficult課程。 3工程類(Eng課程都是難的。 4物理類(Phy課程都是容易的。 5小吳(Wu喜歡所有小李不喜歡的課程。 6 Phy200是物理類課程。 7 Eng300是工程類課程。

請用歸結反演法回答下列問題: 1小李喜歡什么課程? 2證明小吳喜歡Eng300課程 將已知事實形式化表示為合適公式: (1(?

[Course(x ∧ Easy(x ? Like(Li,x]; x

(2 (?x[Course(x ∧?Easy(x ??Like(Li,x]; (3 (?x[Course(x ∧ Eng(x ??Easy(x]; (4 (?x[Course(x ∧ Phg(x ? Easy(x]; (5 (?x[Course(x ∧?Like(x ? Like(Wu,x]; (6 Course(Phy200 ∧ Phy(Phy200; (7 Course(Eng300 ∧ Eng(Eng300; ·問題表示為以下合適公式(目標公式: (1( ?x[Coure(x ∧ Like(Li,x]; (2Like(Wu,Eng300;

·將所有事實和對應于問題的目標公式取反加以化簡,并標準化為合取范式子句集:

(1 ?Course(x1 ∨?Easy(x1 ∨ Like(Li,x1;

(2 ?Course(x2 ∨ Easy(x2 ∨?Like(Li,x2; (3 ?Course(x3 ∨?Eny(x ∨?Easy(x3; (4 ?Course(x4 ∨?Phy(x4 ∨ Easy(x4; (5 ?Course(x5 ∨ Like(Li,x5 ∨ Like(Wu,x5; (6 Course(Phy200; (7 Phy(Phy200; (8 Course(Eng300; (9Eng(Eng300;

(10目標公式(1的取反: (1 ?Course(x6 ∨?Like(Li,x6; (11目標公式(2的取反: (1 ?Like(Wu,Eng300; ·解決問題(1

令(10的取反為:Ask(x6=Course(x6 ∧ Like(Li,x6

提取的問題回答為: Course(Phy200 Like(Li,Phy200 即小李喜歡Phy200課程. ·解決問題(2





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