分子生物學常用名詞解釋 下載本文

常用縮寫

bp = base pair(s) nt = nucleotide(s)

CTD = c-terminal domain NTD = n-terminal domain CAP = cAMP binding site

= catabolite Activator Protein代謝產物激活蛋白 UTR = untranslated region

RBS = ribosome binding sequence Inr = initiator

DPE = downstream promoter elements ORF = open reading frame snRNA = small nuclear RNA

snRNP = small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, 小核核糖核蛋白, 蛋白及5個snRNA復合物 IGS = internal guide sequence內部引導序列 CDS = Coding sequence, =ORF

RBS(SD序列)ribosomal binding site,核糖結合位點 AARS = Amino acid tRNA synthetases EF = elongation factors DB = DNA binding domain

CCR = carbon catabolite repression,分解代謝產物阻遏 CRP = cAMP Receptor Protein,cAMP受體蛋白 SAM = S-adenosyl Met硫代腺苷甲硫氨酸 HDAC = Histone deacetylases組蛋白去乙酰酶 Histone acetyltransferase 組蛋白乙酰化酶 RNAi = RNA interference,RNA干擾 RISC = RNA-induced silencing complex

PTGS = Post-transcriptional gene silencing,轉錄后基因沉默

名詞解釋

1. 極性效應,極性突變Polarity of Mutation,Polar Effect: 在同一個操縱子中, 一個結構基

因發生突變后,它除了影響該基因本身產物的表達外,還(在轉錄或翻譯水平)影響其后結構基因的表達,并且具有極性梯度的特征。 2. 端粒酶Telomerase: 是一種蛋白質-RNA復合物,reverse transcriptase-like RNA-dependent

DNA polymerase. It extends the 3’-end of chromosome using its RNA component as template.

3. 基因表達gene expression:指基因的遺傳信息通過轉錄和翻譯傳遞到蛋白質和功能性

RNA等基因產物的過程。

4. 轉錄transcription:是基因表達的第一步,以dsDNA中的一條作為模板,在依賴DNA

的RNA聚合酶的作用下,以NTP為底物,根據A=U,G≡C的規則,經由5’->3’方向不需要引物的合成RNA。轉錄有三個過程:initiation, elongation and termination. 5. 轉錄單位transcriptional unit:從啟動子(promoter)到終止子(terminator)的一段DNA

稱為轉錄單位 (transcriptional unit)

6. close complex:promoter與聚合酶剛結合時的復合物,此時DNA仍為雙鏈,酶與螺旋

的一個面結合 7. open complex:DNA解旋,出現了在起始位點左右的14bp的開環,為轉錄的bubble form 8. Abortive transcription: the enzyme synthesizes and releases short RNA molecules about 9nt. 9. Abortive intiation: RNA polymerase synthesizes several short RNAs before entering the

elongation phase 10. DNA的復性,也稱重退火:已發生變性的DNA溶液在逐漸降溫的條件下,兩條核苷酸鏈

的配對堿基間又重新形成氫鍵,恢復到天然DNA的雙螺旋結構。

11. terminator: the sequences that trigger the elongation polymerase to dissociate from the

DNA 12. attenuator: 基因內部終止子or衰減子,ρ-independent terminator, or intrinsic terminator. 13. 轉錄后加工:指細胞核內對mRNA前體(Pre-mRNA)進行各種修飾、剪接和編輯,生

成成熟mRNA,使編碼蛋白質的外顯子部分連接成為一個連續的開放閱讀框(open reading frame ORF)的過程。

14. 核不均一RNA, heterogenous nuclear RNA(hnRNA): The hnRNAs synthesized by RNA Pol II

is mainly pre-mRNA and rapidly becomes covered by proteins to form heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) 15. 核不均一核糖核蛋白hnRNA: The hnRNP proteins are thought to help keep the hnRNA in a

single-stranded form and to assist in the various RNA processing reactions

16. 5’剪切位點, 5’ splice site: the exon-intron boundary at the 5’ end of the intron 17. 3’剪切位點, 3’ splice site: the intron -exon boundary at the 3’ end of the intron

18. 分支位點, branch point site: an A close to the 3’ end of the intron, which is followed by a

polypyrimidine tract (Py tract)多嘧啶束.

19. Self-splicing introns:Introns that can fold into a specific conformation within the precursor RNA, and catalyze the chemistry of their own release and the exon ligation. 20. RNA編輯, RNA editing: 是與剪接不同的一種mRNA加工方式,指mRNA在轉錄后因插

入、缺失或核苷酸替換,從而改變DNA來源的遺傳信息。

21. 開放可讀框OPR: The protein coding region of each mRNA is composed of a contiguous,

nonoverlapping string of codons, starts with a start codon & ends with a stop codon.

22. Genetic code遺傳密碼: 決定蛋白質中氨基酸順序的DNA或mRNA核苷酸序列 ,由核

苷酸三聯體密碼子所構成 ,生物有61個編碼蛋白質氨基酸的密碼子,以及3個終止密碼子。

23. codon密碼子:是mRNA上連續排列的3核苷酸序列,一個三聯體密碼編碼一個氨基酸

信息或蛋白翻譯的終止信息。

24. 錯誤突變:An alternation that changes a codon specific for one amino acid to a codon

specific for another amino acid. 25. 無義突變:An alternation causing a change to a stop codon

26. 移碼突變:Insertions or deletions of one or a small number of base pairs that alter the

reading frame.

27. 簡并性degeneracy:一種氨基酸由2個以上密碼子編碼的現象

28. codon family密碼子家族:編碼同一個氨基酸的多個codon,僅在codon的第三位核苷

酸上存在差異。A group of codons that code for the same amino acid and differ only in the nucleotide that occupies the third codon position.

29. isoacceptor:負載同一AA,但識別不同密碼子的不同tRNA

30. Kozak consensus sequence: GCCACCAUGG.可促進真核基因從該AUG正確起譯,避免漏讀

31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

轉肽反應:將延伸中的肽鏈從肽酰tRNA轉到氨酰tRNA,即形成新的肽鍵 effector效應物: 一些化學小分子,能夠結合影響調控蛋白的活性 corepressor輔阻遏物:指與調控蛋白結合能阻止轉錄的小分子化合物 inducer誘導物:指與調控蛋白結合后能誘導轉錄的小分子化合物

recruitment regulation招募調控:Activators contain two binding sites to bind a DNA sequence and RNAPol simultaneously, can therefore enhance the RNAPol affinity with the promoters and increases gene transcription. activator結合DNA和RNAP,提高了RNAP對promoter親和性,增強轉錄。

36. operon:An operon is a unit of prokaryotic gene expression and regulation which includes

coordinately regulated structural genes and control elements which are recognized by

regulatory gene products.一組能被調節蛋白特異識別的原核基因,包括調節基因、結構基因和調控元件。

結構基因:指受調控的編碼特定生物合成和代謝過程中的酶/蛋白質的基因 控制元件:調控結構基因轉錄的一段DNA序列e.g. operator,cap binding site 調節基因:制造識別控制元件產物的基因。

乳糖啟動子Plac:控制多順反子mRNA lacZYA轉錄的啟動子 Riboswitch核糖開關:mRNA結構的一部分,通常位于5′UTR,可通過與小分子結合改變構象影響基因的表達。 表觀遺傳學Epigenetics:是研究基因的核苷酸序列不發生改變的情況下,基因表達和細胞表型發生可遺傳的變化的一門遺傳學分支學科。

RNA干擾,RNAi:外源和內源性的短雙鏈RNA 在生物體內特異性誘導同源基因mRNA的降解, 從而導致轉錄后基因沉默的現象。

microRNA:small noncoding RNA regulators recognizing 3’UTRs found in eukaryotic cells真核細胞內非編碼(蛋白質)的調控RNA分子,識別3’非編碼區

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.





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